The Story of Patriarchs and Prophets
by Ellen G. White
Chapter 16: Jacob and Esau
|For wild pleasure, miscalled freedom, how many are still selling their
birthright to an inheritance pure and undefiled, eternal in the heavens!
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Jacob and Esau, the twin sons of Isaac, present a striking
contrast, both in character and in life. This unlikeness was
foretold by the angel of God before their birth. When in answer
to Rebekah's troubled prayer he declared that two sons would be
given her, he opened to her their future history, that each would
become the head of a mighty nation, but that one would be
greater than the other, and that the younger would have the
Esau grew up loving self-gratification and centering all his
interest in the present. Impatient of restraint, he delighted in the
wild freedom of the chase, and early chose the life of a hunter.
Yet he was the father's favorite. The quiet, peace-loving shepherd
was attracted by the daring and vigor of this elder son, who
fearlessly ranged over mountain and desert, returning home with
game for his father and with exciting accounts of his adventurous
life. Jacob, thoughtful, diligent, and care-taking, ever thinking
more of the future than the present, was content to dwell at
home, occupied in the care of the flocks and the tillage of the
soil. His patient perseverance, thrift, and foresight were valued
by the mother. His affections were deep and strong, and his
gentle, unremitting attentions added far more to her happiness
than did the boisterous and occasional kindnesses of Esau. To
Rebekah, Jacob was the dearer son.
The promises made to Abraham and confirmed to his son
were held by Isaac and Rebekah as the great object of their desires
and hopes. With these promises Esau and Jacob were familiar.
They were taught to regard the birthright as a matter of great
importance, for it included not only an inheritance of worldly
wealth but spiritual pre-eminence. He who received it was to
be the priest of his family, and in the line of his posterity the
Redeemer of the world would come. On the other hand, there
were obligations resting upon the possessor of the birthright. He [p. 178] who should inherit its blessings must devote his life to the service
of God. Like Abraham, he must be obedient to the divine requirements.
In marriage, in his family relations, in public life, he
must consult the will of God.
Isaac made known to his sons these privileges and conditions,
and plainly stated that Esau, as the eldest, was the one entitled to
the birthright. But Esau had no love for devotion, no inclination
to a religious life. The requirements that accompanied the spiritual
birthright were an unwelcome and even hateful restraint to
him. The law of God, which was the condition of the divine
covenant with Abraham, was regarded by Esau as a yoke of bondage.
Bent on self-indulgence, he desired nothing so much as liberty
to do as he pleased. To him power and riches, feasting and
reveling, were happiness. He gloried in the unrestrained freedom
of his wild, roving life. Rebekah remembered the words of the
angel, and she read with clearer insight than did her husband the
character of their sons. She was convinced that the heritage of
divine promise was intended for Jacob. She repeated to Isaac the
angel's words; but the father's affections were centered upon the
elder son, and he was unshaken in his purpose.
Jacob had learned from his mother of the divine intimation
that the birthright should fall to him, and he was filled with an
unspeakable desire for the privileges which it would confer. It
was not the possession of his father's wealth that he craved; the
spiritual birthright was the object of his longing. To commune
with God as did righteous Abraham, to offer the sacrifice of
atonement for his family, to be the progenitor of the chosen people
and of the promised Messiah, and to inherit the immortal
possessions embraced in the blessings of the covenant-here were
the privileges and honors that kindled his most ardent desires.
His mind was ever reaching forward to the future, and seeking
to grasp its unseen blessings.
With secret longing he listened to all that his father told
concerning the spiritual birthright; he carefully treasured what he
had learned from his mother. Day and night the subject occupied
his thoughts, until it became the absorbing interest of his life.
But while he thus esteemed eternal above temporal blessings,
Jacob had not an experimental knowledge of the God whom
he revered. His heart had not been renewed by divine grace. He
believed that the promise concerning himself could not be fulfilled [p. 179] so long as Esau retained the rights of the first-born, and he
constantly studied to devise some way whereby he might secure
the blessing which his brother held so lightly, but which was so
precious to himself.
When Esau, coming home one day faint and weary from the
chase, asked for the food that Jacob was preparing, the latter,
with whom one thought was ever uppermost, seized upon his
advantage, and offered to satisfy his brother's hunger at the price
of the birthright. "Behold, I am at the point to die," cried the
reckless, self-indulgent hunter, "and what profit shall this
birthright do to me?" And for a dish of red pottage he parted with
his birthright, and confirmed the transaction by an oath. A short
time at most would have secured him food in his father's tents,
but to satisfy the desire of the moment he carelessly bartered the
glorious heritage that God Himself had promised to his fathers.
His whole interest was in the present. He was ready to sacrifice
the heavenly to the earthly, to exchange a future good for a
"Thus Esau despised his birthright." In disposing of it he felt
a sense of relief. Now his way was unobstructed; he could do as
he liked. For this wild pleasure, miscalled freedom, how many
are still selling their birthright to an inheritance pure and
undefiled, eternal in the heavens!
Ever subject to mere outward and earthly attractions, Esau
took two wives of the daughters of Heth. They were worshipers
of false gods, and their idolatry was a bitter grief to Isaac
and Rebekah. Esau had violated one of the conditions of the
covenant, which forbade intermarriage between the chosen people
and the heathen; yet Isaac was still unshaken in his determination
to bestow upon him the birthright. The reasoning of Rebekah,
Jacob's strong desire for the blessing, and Esau's indifference to
its obligations had no effect to change the father's purpose.
Years passed on, until Isaac, old and blind, and expecting
soon to die, determined no longer to delay the bestowal of the
blessing upon his elder son. But knowing the opposition of
Rebekah and Jacob, he decided to perform the solemn ceremony in
secret. In accordance with the custom of making a feast upon
such occasions, the patriarch bade Esau, "Go out to the field, and
take me some venison; and make me savory meat, . . . that my
soul may bless thee before I die." [p. 180]
Rebekah divined his purpose. She was confident that it was
contrary to what God had revealed as His will. Isaac was in danger
of incurring the divine displeasure and of debarring his
younger son from the position to which God had called him. She
had in vain tried the effect of reasoning with Isaac, and she
determined to resort to stratagem.
No sooner had Esau departed on his errand than Rebekah set
about the accomplishment of her purpose. She told Jacob what
had taken place, urging the necessity of immediate action to
prevent the bestowal of the blessing, finally and irrevocably, upon
Esau. And she assured her son that if he would follow her directions,
he might obtain it as God had promised. Jacob did not
readily consent to the plan that she proposed. The thought of
deceiving his father caused him great distress. He felt that such
a sin would bring a curse rather than a blessing. But his scruples
were overborne, and he proceeded to carry out his mother's
suggestions. It was not his intention to utter a direct falsehood, but
once in the presence of his father he seemed to have gone too far
to retreat, and he obtained by fraud the coveted blessing.
Jacob and Rebekah succeeded in their purpose, but they gained
only trouble and sorrow by their deception. God had declared
that Jacob should receive the birthright, and His word would
have been fulfilled in His own time had they waited in faith
for Him to work for them. But like many who now profess
to be children of God, they were unwilling to leave the matter
in His hands. Rebekah bitterly repented the wrong counsel she
had given her son; it was the means of separating him from
her, and she never saw his face again. From the hour when
he received the birthright, Jacob was weighed down with
self-condemnation. He had sinned against his father, his brother,
his own soul, and against God. In one short hour he had made
work for a lifelong repentance. This scene was vivid before him
in afteryears, when the wicked course of his sons oppressed
No sooner had Jacob left his father's tent than Esau entered.
Though he had sold his birthright, and confirmed the transfer by
a solemn oath, he was now determined to secure its blessings,
regardless of his brother's claim. With the spiritual was connected
the temporal birthright, which would give him the headship of
the family and possession of a double portion of his father's [p. 181] wealth. These were blessings that he could value. "Let my father
arise," he said, "and eat of his son's venison, that thy soul may
Trembling with astonishment and distress, the blind old father
learned the deception that had been practiced upon him. His
long and fondly cherished hopes had been thwarted, and he
keenly felt the disappointment that must come upon his elder
son. Yet the conviction flashed upon him that it was God's
providence which had defeated his purpose and brought about the
very thing he had determined to prevent. He remembered the
words of the angel to Rebekah, and notwithstanding the sin of
which Jacob was now guilty, he saw in him the one best fitted
to accomplish the purposes of God. While the words of blessing
were upon his lips, he had felt the Spirit of inspiration upon
him; and now, knowing all the circumstances, he ratified the
benediction unwittingly pronounced upon Jacob: "I have blessed
him; yea, and he shall be blessed."
Esau had lightly valued the blessing while it seemed within
his reach, but he desired to possess it now that it was gone from
him forever. All the strength of his impulsive, passionate nature
was aroused, and his grief and rage were terrible. He cried with
an exceeding bitter cry, "Bless me, even me also, O my father!"
"Hast thou not reserved a blessing for me?" But the promise
given was not to be recalled. The birthright which he had so
carelessly bartered he could not now regain. "For one morsel of
meat," for a momentary gratification of appetite that had never
been restrained, Esau sold his inheritance; but when he saw his
folly, it was too late to recover the blessing. "He found no place of
repentance, though he sought it carefully with tears." Hebrews
12:16, 17. Esau was not shut out from the privilege of seeking
God's favor by repentance, but he could find no means of
recovering the birthright. His grief did not spring from conviction
of sin; he did not desire to be reconciled to God. He sorrowed
because of the results of his sin, but not for the sin itself.
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Because of his indifference to the divine blessings and
requirements, Esau is called in Scripture "a profane person." Verse
16. He represents those who lightly value the redemption purchased
for them by Christ, and are ready to sacrifice their heirship
to heaven for the perishable things of earth. Multitudes live
for the present, with no thought or care for the future. Like Esau [p. 182] they cry, "Let us eat and drink; for tomorrow we die." 1
Corinthians 15:32. They are controlled by inclination; and rather
than practice self-denial, they will forgo the most valuable
considerations. If one must be relinquished, the gratification of a
depraved appetite or the heavenly blessings promised only to the
self-denying and God-fearing, the claims of appetite prevail, and
God and heaven are virtually despised. How many, even of professed
Christians, cling to indulgences that are injurious to health
and that benumb the sensibilities of the soul. When the duty is
presented of cleansing themselves from all filthiness of the flesh
and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God, they are
offended. They see that they cannot retain these hurtful gratifications
and yet secure heaven, and they conclude that since the
way to eternal life is so strait, they will no longer walk therein.
Multitudes are selling their birthright for sensual indulgence.
Health is sacrificed, the mental faculties are enfeebled, and heaven
is forfeited; and all for a mere temporary pleasure—an indulgence
at once both weakening and debasing in its character. As Esau
awoke to see the folly of his rash exchange when it was too late to
recover his loss, so it will be in the day of God with those who
have bartered their heirship to heaven for selfish gratifications.
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"Jacob's Flight and Exile"